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Work Package 3: The Applications and Interoperable Media

The application and interoperable media work package (WP3) aims to:

         Identify the common requirements for transport contactless media

         Identify the benefits of multi-application media to enlarge interoperability

         Define common requirements on interoperable contactless media and          multi-application management for Public Transport

         Issue recommendations for migration path to multi-application media

D3.1 "Benefits of multi application media for end users and description of multi application management functions"

The first deliverable of this work package provides a state of the art vision of the benefits for multi application media for end users and a description of multi application management functions (see D3.1).

The application and interoperable media work package (WP3) has identified valuable benefits for using multi-application media to enlarge interoperability:

    Coexistence of multiple ticketing applications on the same media is the most cost effective and immediate way to extend interoperability.

    It enables every participating IFM to keep on using its existing local applications and products.


As a pragmatic approach, the IFM is proposing to:

               Download local application on demand for occasional usage

               Download EU common application when available at a later stage

 From this statement, it becomes then pivotal that interoperability for application download must be ensured to allow each IFM scheme to download transport application on third party media. Moreover, such media will likely be used for different types of applications and not only transport ones. The IFM model is then likely to evolve to integrate new roles and new links related to the media management.


D3.2 Common requirements and recommendations on interoperable media and multi-application management

Common requirements on interoperable contactless media and multi-application management for Public Transport have been defined (see D3.2) based on widely used open standard from the industry:

   Media must implement a microprocessor based Secure Element which hosts and executes the ticketing application.

   Several form factors can be used for contactless media: smart card, USB key, NFC phones

   Java Card as a secure multi application environment and GlobalPlatform for application management interoperability have been identified as mandatory technologies.

   The GlobalPlatform technology can be used for Over The Air (OTA) or Over The Internet remote application loading, installation and personalisation allowing to match with the preferred scenario selected by each IFM scheme.

   One of the key findings was that there were no  transport specific requirement preventing to load a ticketing applications in non transport dedicated media (like a NFC phone, a contactless payment card, ).


A certification process must be defined to limit dependence between media certification and application certification and to identify EU IFM compliant media. This certification process must be handled at a cross industry level and a transportation representation is needed for this.

D3.3 Recommendations for migration paths to the introduction of multi-application media

As a final outcome, the Media WP has listed the main type of ticketing applications in Europe and issued recommendations for migration path to multi-application media (see D3.3).

                   Main identified types of ticketing application in Europe are based on VDV KA, Calypso and MIFARE Classic or Desfire.

                   Most of the legacy applications using proprietary algorithms are now considering to migrate to standard algorithms usage (like 3DES, AES,).

                  Ticketing application shall be available as a JAVA card applet which is the case for most of them except for MIFARE Classic or Desfire which still requires a dedicated HW environment for execution.

                   Management of ticketing applications shall be achievable with GlobalPlatform which is the case for Calypso, on going for VDV KA but still an issue with MIFARE Classic.


It has been encouraging through this WP achievement to confirm that most of the IFM schemes were using or migrating towards the usage of ticketing applications compliant with the EU IFM media requirements, confirming that the approach of dematerializing and porting existing local application onto multi applications media is a key objective for most of them and that pragmatic and realistic solutions exist from now.